The functional finishing of textiles is the process of giving special functions to textiles that are not usually available. It is an important means to enhance textiles. As a major part of the application of textile fabrics, home textile products have great demand for functional textile fabrics. Based on the uniqueness of the application of home textile products, this paper introduces the common functions of home textiles and introduces the future development. .
Traditional household textiles
That is, DP (Durable Press) finishing or PP (Permanent Press) finishing, the anti-wrinkle level of the fabric is improved compared with the washable finishing, that is, the appearance is flat and wrinkle-free, and the size is stable; the fabric also has the function of maintaining the shape of the garment and the shape of the pleats. Such as pants line and skirt pleats remain unchanged. Generally, durable press finishing is mainly applied to cotton fabrics, polyester-cotton blended fabrics, and almost all textile fabrics containing natural fibers are to be finished.
In home textiles, bedding is often required.
Flame retardant finishing
Flame-retardant finishing means that the finished fabric has different degrees of ability to prevent flame spread, and can quickly stop burning after leaving the fire source. Fiber combustion is generally divided into flaming combustion and flameless. The former is the combustion of gas and volatile liquid formed during thermal cracking of the fiber, and the latter is the oxidation of residue (carbon). At the same time, the combustion of the fiber is related to the product of thermal cracking, and the thermal cracking process of different fibers is different. In the textile flame retardant finishing process. Both of these indicators basically need to be reduced as much as possible. The mechanism of flame retardant finishing of textiles:
(1) Coverage theory: The flame retardant can form an insulating coating on the surface of the fiber at 500 °C. In addition to hindering the supply of 02, it also prevents the flammable gas from diffusing outward, thereby achieving flame retardant purposes, such as borax-boric acid.
(2) Gas theory: one is a flame retardant, which decomposes non-combustible gas at combustion temperature, and dilutes the flammable gas concentration to below the flame concentration; the other is a flame retardant, which can be used as lively under heating conditions. The higher the nature of the radical transfer, thereby preventing the progress of the radical reaction.
(3) Endothermic theory: One is a flame retardant, which absorbs heat at high temperatures, such as melting and sublimation, to prevent combustion from spreading. The other is that the fibers dissipate heat rapidly, so that the fabric does not reach the combustion temperature.
(4) Catalytic dehydration theory: mainly refers to the thermal cracking process of the fiber, because the flame retardant can cause rapid and large amount of dehydration of the cellulose molecular chain before fracture, and even some cross-linking action prevents the formation of L-glucose. The flaming combustion is suppressed.
Home textile fabric products are mainly used in curtains, kitchen supplies, carpets, sofas, and children's quilts.
Three defense finishing
Waterproof, oil and antifouling treatment of fabrics, commonly known as "three defenses". In household textiles, the three-proof finishing is mainly used in kitchen products and fabric sofa products. At present, the main direction of the development of Sanfang products:
1. Functional fiber applications, such as hydrophobic, non-oily fiber blending and interlacing. Its main working principle changes the fiber specific surface, through the change of surface tension and contact angle, it plays a role of hydrophobic antifouling or easy decontamination.
2. The use of functional additives, mainly in the two processes of coating and printing, most of which are baked by high temperature, mainly using various types of resins as the main raw materials, but tend to be poor in gas permeability. In home textile fabrics, it is generally used in kitchen aprons and other products.
1 radiation protection finishing
1. Anti-ultraviolet radiation finishing
Modern scientific research shows that the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays (UVR) on the human body are far greater than its beneficial effects. Cataracts, skin cancers, etc. are mainly caused by ultraviolet radiation. Therefore, it is very important to carry out anti-UV finishing on fabrics, especially for long-term use and outdoor fabrics.
Outdoor tents and baby carports are basically anti-UV finishing.
Anti-UV finishing method:
(1) High temperature and high pressure exhaustion method: similar to high temperature and high pressure dyeing of polyester. Some insoluble or poorly soluble UV absorbers have a molecular structure close to that of disperse dyes and can enter and fix the fibers under high temperature and pressure conditions. The high-temperature and high-pressure exhaustion method is suitable for synthetic fiber fabrics such as polyester and nylon, and is more commonly used in the same bath with disperse dyeing and anti-ultraviolet finishing.
(2) Atmospheric pressure exhaustion method: It is mainly applicable to anti-ultraviolet finishing of natural fiber fabrics such as hemp wool and silk. The atmospheric pressure exhaustion method must use a water-soluble ultraviolet absorber, such as a benzophenone water-soluble ultraviolet absorber, and its molecular structure has a plurality of hydroxyl groups having good adsorption capacity for cotton and other natural fibers, so The method can be used for anti-ultraviolet finishing of natural fiber fabrics such as cotton under normal pressure.
(3) Padding method: Since most of the ultraviolet shielding agent is insoluble in water and lacks affinity for natural fibers such as cotton and hemp, it is not possible to use the same bath as the resin by the exhaustion method, and to fix the shielding agent on the surface of the fabric. The padding liquid is composed of an ultraviolet shielding agent, a resin, a softener, and the like. The perforations on the fabric are easily covered by the resin, which affects the style, water absorption and breathability of the finished fabric.
(4) Coating method: The coating method generally adds an appropriate amount of ultraviolet shielding agent to the coating agent, and uses a coater to perform fine fine coating on the surface of the fabric, and then forms a layer on the surface of the fabric by drying and necessary heat treatment. film. Although this type of method can affect the washing fastness and hand feeling, it has wide applicability to fiber types, low processing cost, and low application technology and equipment requirements. Most of the ultraviolet shielding agents used in the coating method are some highly refractive inorganic compounds.
(5) Microcapsule technology: Microcapsules are a special form of packaging. The contents of the capsules can be solid particles or droplets or bubbles. Through the microcapsule technology, the anti-UV finishing agent can be injected into the capsule, so that the outer layer of the capsule is ruptured during the wearing process, thereby achieving the effect of slow release of the anti-ultraviolet finishing agent. If a photochromic crystal is added to the capsule, the fabric can be made to have a discoloration function, which not only enhances the aesthetics but also enhances the anti-ultraviolet function, and can resist long-term ultraviolet radiation.
(6) Printing method: the ultraviolet shielding agent or absorbent is prepared in the printing paste, and is fixed on the fabric by steaming after printing. This method is suitable for fabrics which do not require high ultraviolet shielding rate.
(7) Sol-gel technology: general masking agent has poor wash fastness. As a new multi-purpose technology, sol-gel technology can coat the surface of fabric with a transparent metal oxide film. Greatly improve wash fastness while enhancing UV resistance.
2. Anti-electromagnetic radiation finishing
The continuous advancement of modern industry and the rapid development of science and technology have promoted the wide application of various household appliances and electronic devices. This aspect brings great convenience to people's work, study, and life, and also gives people health. Brought a great hidden danger. It is scientifically proven that household appliances and electronic devices will generate electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths and frequencies to varying degrees during use. These electromagnetic radiations have become a new type of colorless, odorless, invisible, intangible, and penetrating. The source of pollution quietly erodes people's bodies, affecting people's health and causing various diseases.
In home textile fabrics, mainly used in bed materials and pajamas for pregnant women and infants, curtains for special occasions also have promotional value.
The main methods of anti-electronic radiation finishing of textiles:
(1) Coating finishing of fabric: This processing method is mainly to directly apply the material with electromagnetic shielding function on the fabric to make the fabric have the function of isolating electromagnetic waves.
(2) Interlacing fibers with conductive function (such as carbon fiber, silver fiber) in the weaving process of the fabric, or printing a cross-cut conductive material in the printing process, forming a mesh shape to achieve the function of shielding electromagnetic waves.
Antibacterial deodorant finishing
As concerns about health and cleanliness increase, there is a growing tendency for people to have comfortable and comfortable performances in their daily lives. The harmful fungi that are easily accessible in the bedding and the harmful bacteria and odors in the bedroom, and the resulting odor often affect the comfort of people's daily life, and the demand for anti-bacterial and odor measures is also increased.
2. The main method of antibacterial deodorization
(1) Physical adsorption method: the fabric is increased in specific surface area, and the pores are added to increase the adsorption performance of the fabric on the odor, and the antibacterial substance is finally arranged on the surface of the fabric to finally achieve deodorization and antibacterial.
(2) Chemical adsorption method: by oxidizing, reducing, decomposing, neutralizing and other reactions on the surface of the fabric, the substances which produce malodorous and harmful fungi, the odorous substances stained on the surface of the fabric become odorless, and the harmful bacteria are killed. Dead, currently used mainly amphoteric surfactants.
(3) Photocatalytic method: using ultra-fine granular photosensitive materials (such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, etc.), which absorbs ultraviolet rays to generate electrons and positive holes, so that the adsorbed water is oxidized to (-OH) radicals, and oxygen in the air is reduced. It is a (-O2-) ion, and finally forms a peroxide to react with the odor of killing or releasing harmful bacteria to achieve deodorizing and antibacterial.
In household textiles, there are high demands on bedding, curtains, pillow materials, and sofa fabrics.
Special features and intelligent finishing
The so-called aroma finishing, in fact, is finished by dyeing and finishing, so that the fabric has a certain fragrance for a long time. At present, the main use of microcapsule technology, the required aroma material, including finishing in the fabric, to achieve a slow release. Among them, β-cyclodextrin is currently used more.
Mosquito repellent finishing
Generally, mosquito repellent materials or auxiliaries are added inside the fiber or on the surface of the fabric to make the fabric have a mosquito-repellent effect.
In home textiles, especially baby bedding, baby car fabrics, and outdoor fabrics, there is a greater demand.
Negative ion release health care
The negative ions are confirmed to have the function of killing germs and purifying the air, and at the same time, it emits far-infrared radiation and is absorbed by the human body, so that the oxygen content in the human blood is increased. It is conducive to blood oxygen transport, absorption and utilization, and has the functions of promoting human metabolism, improving human immunity, enhancing muscle energy and regulating body function balance.
Negative ion finishing of textiles, mainly to release substances that are beneficial to the body's oxygen anion, processed into nano-sized particles, coated with micro-capsules, and then added to the fabric by spinning, dyeing and other techniques, in the process of use Slow release.
The release of negative ion home textile products is mainly used in people's living environment (office, bedroom, living room), which is a good choice for shaping high negative ion environment, alleviating work fatigue, promoting sleep, and improving individual thinking.
Temperature smart fabric
Mainly through the use of intelligent temperature control materials and additives in home textiles, textile products have a certain sensitivity to temperature, and through the discoloration or electronic signals to express the temperature changes, and then through the information feedback system, transmission To the control system, to achieve environmental warning or self-regulating functions, such as: baby temperature control color-changing clothes or bedding, automatic color changing curtains according to the intensity of sunlight, and so on.
Home textiles function to organize future development
With the improvement of the quality of life, people's requirements for functional textiles, especially home textile fabrics, no longer have a single function, but require multiple functions. This puts new demands on textile materials and textile processing technology, and is also functional in the future. The trend of home textile fabric development.
Safe without residue
Safety is an eternal problem in society. Home textile products are indispensable in people's daily life, and they are always with us. Even some aspects are comparable to the food we eat in the body. The safety requirements are very high, such as: handcuffs, tourniquets, The baby is shackled and so on. Therefore, the choice of multifunctional textile materials and finishing dyeing auxiliaries requires non-toxic, non-irritating, environmentally friendly and degradable and recyclable.
The maintenance of functions and the long-lasting performance of the woven products are the main indicators reflecting the quality and performance of the products, and also a major indicator for determining whether the products have high added value. This requires designers of home textile products to fully understand the product use process and processing process at the beginning of the product design, which is an effective combination of the two, so that product research and development can do more with less.
Give textiles a feedback on environmental changes and electronic information transmission. In home textiles, it is mainly reflected in environmental change feedback, bedroom environmental indicators, and monitoring of human physiological indicators.